Lonelymusafir writes blogs and vlogs on his Himalayan Biking Trips to Spiti, Sikkim, Laddakh. Lonelymusafir's blogs Ayodhya Pahar, Prurliya an offbeat tribal(Santhali) location are rare to find. Landscape and portrait Photography along with urdu shayari and sad poetry makes this blog a versatile one. The blogs is practical and based on personal experience sharing. The blog contains detailed travelogues and itinerary on Trichy, Pudducherry, Angriya Cruise. Do's and Don'ts for Bikers taking Royal Enfield Rides to Himalayas, based on personal Experiences is rare to find.
This what your Lonely Musafir Blog Ad will look like to visitors! Of course you will want to use keywords and ad targeting to get the most out of your ad campaign! So purchase an ad space today before there all gone!
notice: Total Ad Spaces Available: (2) ad spaces remaining of (2)
A short bike ride to Sariska National Park, Alwar, Rajasthan with RF Riders
Portrait of an Old Age Man from Rurals of Alwar, Rajasthan.
Monoclonal Antibodies are the cure for Corona Virus. They are produced using HAT medium using Hybridoma Technology. This article explains in very simple terms/ Language the process of mAB production.
Researchers across the globe are working on the cure for COVID-19. By the time they come out with a cure, we the common man need to understand the cure.
I being a Graduate in Biotechnology trying to make an attempt to make general masses understand as how a cure is developed for such a pandemic.
The Monoclonal Antibodies (mAB or moAb) are our fighting force against the virus. These are antibodies specific for one type of Antigen (Here- Corona Virus 2019-nCoV).
Antigen is an extracellular (Foreign Cell) species which activates our immune system (i.e. Stimulates Antibody Production) in our body . It may be a bacteria, virus, protozoa or fungi etc.
In case of COVID-19 the Corona Virus 2019-nCoV is the antigen. An antigen after entering a host body (Human is our case) stimulates B-Lymphocytes (Immunity Cells) which is then converted into a Plasma cell. These plasma cells are the fighters which starts secreting Antibodies for the antigens sensed by B-Lymphocytes. These antibodies kill the Antigen by blocking its active sites.
There is a set procedure of producing mAB for any antigen. Let me explain it in simple steps.
Let us now understand the process in detail and in simple terms.
We need to produce Antibodies for a deadly antigen like corona virus 2019-nCoV. Researchers will first inject corona virus 2019-nCoV to a mice or a guinea pig.
The injection will be done intravenously or in simple words virus will be directly injected into the blood stream of that mice.
This will activate the immune response in the mice and later antibodies will be generated and that is what we want.
As the injection has been done directly into the blood stream, the antigens will be trapped into the spleen, which is the secondary lymphoid organ.
The virus 2019-nCoV, will stimulate the B-Cell (immune response) inside the Spleen cells converting it into plasma cells generating Antibodies to kill Corona Virus 2019-nCoV.
After taking out the mice spleen one can ask why it is required to fuse the spleen cells with myeloma cells? Why can’t we simply extract the antibodies from plasma cells using a culture medium?
The reason why plasma cells can not be used to extract Antibodies directly is due to their shorter life spans. The plasma cells have a very short life span which is not enough for the process of cell culture and antibody extraction.
Myeloma cells are cancerous cells which are immortal cells and have very fast rate of multiplication. Hence fusing a plasma cell with Myeloma cell will result in immortalisation of Plasma cells by formation of a Hybridoma (Hybrid cell of Plasma and Myeloma).
So now we have a cell which has an endless life and potential to generate Antibodies.
During the fusion of Myeloma and Plasma cells five types of cells can possibly form.
Out of which Only Fused Plasma (Plasma+Plasma), Hybridoma (Plasma+Myeloma) and Unfused Plasma (Single Plasma) cells are of our use as they only have property of generating 2019-nCoV specific antibodies.
HAT stands for Hypoxanthine, Aminopterin and Thymidine. These are the three ingredients of the selective medium chosen to culture the Hybridomas so that it can generate desirable antibodies.
All mother cells divides into daughter cells by replication of DNA, for this syntheses of Nucleic acid is required. This synthesis of Nucleic Acid can be done by two pathways.
De-Novo pathway– Where Nucleic Acid is synthesised from basic molecules.
Salvage Pathway– Where Nucleic acid is synthesised from degraded nucleotides.
Now in HAT Media, due the presence of Aminopterin cells can not replicate thorugh De Novo Pathway, as Aminopterin blocks a key enzyme Dihydrofolatereductase.
Now the cells in HAT media has only way to replicate is through Salvage Process. But, here is the catch. Cells need HGPRT(Hypoxanthine Guanine Phospho Ribosil Transferase) enzyme to relplicate through Salvage process.
Myeloma cells- NO HGPRT
Plasma Cells(Fused and Unfused) and Hybridoma cells- Has HGPRT enzyme, Hence replicates in HAT Medium.
Plasma cells and fused plasma cells having very small life span will automatically perish in HAT media and Hybridoma cells will only survive.
These Hybridomas will yield the Monoclonal Antibodies, which will be our weapon against the Corona Virus- 2019-nCoV.
Many researchers are working on the same lines for generating a cure for this deadly virus. Till the time they succeed, let’s keep the fingers crossed.
PC: Google Images & Sajid Shaikh
LonelyMusafir Travels to Tawang from Dirang Crossing mighty Sela Pass, Frozen Sela lake, Freezed Jaswantgarh. The Detailed Video Narrates how we travelled across snowy roads and freezing wind.
An Old Lady from Santhal Tribe-Ayodhya Pahar Region, Puruliya, West Bengal, India
This is a vlog of My bike trip to Arunachal Pradesh in January 2020. This is Part-1 which covers my journey from Guwahati to Dirang Via Lapool, Bhairavkunda, Kalaktanag, Shergaon, Rupa and Bomdila.
Or if you prefer use one of our linkware images? Click here
If you are the owner of Lonely Musafir, or someone who enjoys this blog why not upgrade it to a Featured Listing or Permanent Listing?